Taxondroid : Design Interactive Application for Animal Taxonomy Learning Using Teen-Computer Interaction Approach

Hendra
Computer Science Department, School of Computer Science
Bina Nusantara University
Jakarta, Indonesia,11480
hendras@binus.ac.id

Yulyani Arifin
Computer Science Department, School of Computer Science
Bina Nusantara University
Jakarta, Indonesia,11480
yarifin@binus.edu

Rosyid Prasetio Wibowo
Computer Science Department, School of Computer Science
Bina Nusantara University
Jakarta,Indonesia, 11480
Rosyidpras@outlook.com

Ozsa Praditiya
Computer Science Department, School of Computer Science
Bina Nusantara University
Jakarta,Indonesia, 11480
ozsaprdtya@gmail.com

 

Abstract—Today teenagers are easier to learn with a visual and auditory approach. Teenagers have problems when studying Biology which consists of many foreign terms, and many abstract theories. Teachers also find it difficult to convey the material so students can easily understand it and attract students’ attention. To attract the attention of teenagers so that they are easy to understand, digital technology is needed that has an attractive visual and interface. Augmented Reality (AR) technology provides a new way of learning for teenagers in learning. AR has been widely applied in the delivery of learning materials such as mathematics, physics, astronomy. Therefore AR can also be used in delivering Biology material. Users who, on average, need a design interface that suits their needs. Researchers are now also starting to conduct research to find suitable modeling for the needs of teenagers commonly known as Teen-Computing Interaction. To help overcome the obstacles of teenagers in learning the Animal Taxonomy, the researchers propose developing a multimedia-based application by applying Augmented Reality technology that implements the design of a Teen-Computer Interaction based interface.

Index Terms— Augmented Reality, Teen-Computer Interaction, Biology, Multimedia.

I. Introduction

Children with Y and Z generations have come into contact with digital technology for example watching children’s films on youtube or seeing dances or songs. They prefer to see media that move and speak out rather than just textual media. This affects the way children and adolescents learn at school. One lesson that has a lot of conceptual material is Biology subjects. Identification of learning difficulties experienced by junior high school students is a Biology lesson in which the average mark is below 65 out of 100, where one reason is because there are too many foreign terms and too much material that is abstract in nature [1]. The research conducted by Metri [2] states that Science Teachers in Malang City have difficulty teaching Biology subjects especially those related to the classification of living things. This is because the conceptual material taught is only in the form of lectures that are lecture in nature, do not do visualization or are made more real. In addition to visualization, other ways to help students understand lessons can also be through multimedia-based learning [3].

Augmented Reality (AR) is the most common used technology in purpose of study. Nowadays, there are many applications that uses AR in study, e.g. Aurasma that helps kids in studying art, and Blippar, an AR application that can obtain material corresponding to one’s desire, like solar system [4]. According to Akçayır, M., & Akçayır, G the advantages of using Augmented Reality for students related with the learners outcomes are the enhancement of learning achievement also, using mobile device AR for learning can enhance the student’s performance [5].

To help Biology teachers teaches a study material that is too conceptual, researchers suggest an interface development based on multimedia with the interface that corresponding the teenager users in average. From the application, Augmented Reality technology is added in classification of animals. Augmented Reality has been used to display anatomy and body structures so that the students will more understand organs in visual [6] (Lee, 2012). Therefore, by using the same technology, AR, to display classification of animals in visual display. Biology became research focus is for Junior High Schoolers that the students can be categorized to teenagers. To give user’s fun experience for teenagers, then can not be the same as the interface design in children and adults as well [7]. Chow, Smith and Sun have high school youth as the design partners when design a website for middle and high school students and the implication for this method is the new construct for the designer that usually have adult paradigm when designing an application[8].

The purpose of writing this paper is to develop an application with multimedia basics by using Augmented Reality technology with giving attention to interaction structure that is suitable for teenagers.

Urgency (Virtue) of this research is the world of education has to be able to answer challenges of different way of study, especially for teenagers that often in touch to digital world. Therefore, the media of study need to be improved to its varieties and start to apply a virtual technology to improve teenagers’ knowledge of the subject that has an abstract or conceptual character.

  II. Literature Review

In data collecting that are related to interaction structure, there is a certain technique that can be done to involve teenagers in research, i.e. giving appreciation, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology, and performance [9].

According to Carmigniani et al, the main tool that is commonly used in AR applications are displays, consists of Head Mounted Displays (HMD), Handheld Displays, and Spatial Displays. For input tools like gloves, smartphone as a pointing device, gaze interaction. While tracking device such as GPS, accelerometers, solid state compasses, wireless sensors. Interface for AR consist of 4 parts, namely Tangible AR Interfaces, Collaborative AR Interfaces, Hybrid AR Interfaces, and Emerging Multimodal Interfaces. AR system consist of fixed indoor systems, fixed outdoor systems, mobile outdoor systems, and mobile indoor systems. AR applications can be applied in many subjects, i.e. advertising and commercial, entertainment and education, medic applications, mobile applications (iPhone) [10].

In education, AR has been used in Senior High School education, e.g. Astronomy, Biology, Mathematics, Physics. Even AR can be combined with books so it became a Magic Book product[6].

AR product that has been applied in Biology subject is studying molecules by using Tangible Auto-Fabricated Models. Physically, models give an intuition interface to manipulated computer model, and harmonized human’s desire, physical model, and computing activity[11].
Santos et al suggest an authoring tools for creating learning object for Augmented Reality Learning Experience. This learning object will help teachers teach  their students using Augmented Reality application.[12].

Tarng and Kuo was developed a virtual butterfly ecological environment for learning butterfly ecology using Augmented Reality based on mobile. This application can help to enhance the student learners motivation and interest when studying biology[13].

An application augmented reality based on mobile can be developed using Vuforia and Rajawali framework. Using this framework can developed a good application and practical to used[14].

III. Research Method

This research using method that explained below :

  1. Interview and Survey

The survey and interview took place at the same public Junior High School at Jakarta. The interview was conducted with the Biology’s teacher to collect information about the obstacles or difficulties when teaching the material. The total participant that involved in this surveys is 34 persons or one class in that school. The questions in this surveys contain demography matters, the obstacles when learning Biology in the conventional way , also the needs that can help them enhance their learning experience.

  1. Teen Computer Interaction Design

The user interface design for the purpose application is based on the students needs and suggestion. According to Fitton and Bell said that the teenagers have combination advantages from the creativity of children and the adult’s articulation [15]. So, when designing the application must consider three aspects are cognitive , biological and social. The user interface design must interactive and make the learner enjoyable by involving the teenager in designing the application.

  1. Development Application

The object of Augmented Reality was built using Vuforia SDK. The application was developed on mobile platform using the Android SDK. The marker of Augmented Reality object was made that will be used as the target from the 3D object that related with the learning topic.

  1. Evaluation

The user experience evaluation was conducted to evaluate the learner experience when using this proposed application. The Cronbach correlation test is used to test the validity and reliability test of the variable in the evaluation questionnaire.

IV.  Taxonomy Learning Application

Taxondroid application is a Taxonomy learning application by using Augmented Reality technology. With the help from Taxondroid application, users could learn about Biology Taxonomy easier and more practical in material menu. Then, users can evaluate until how far users have understanding Taxonomy from each animal based on animal’s classes from the mentioned animal in Review menu.

In Help menu, users are recommended to use it first. Taxondroid application could tell the users to do Taxonomy learning by using camera from their smartphones to book learning part which is available in Augmented Reality display from this application, the book learning only in marker form from the mentioned object and has a few short explain, i.e. animals’ original habitat, animals’ scarcity status and including herbivore, carnivore, omnivore or insectivore. Animals material menu, which is in Augmented Reality in the form of Taxonomy material from the mentioned animals, levels from Kingdom to Species, and the animals’ scientific names. Users also can tell the sound difference from each animal by Sound menu which is in Augmented Reality.

Taxondroid application has a Taxonomy learning feature for beginners. The first feature is “Material” feature in Augmented Reality, by using this material users can learn main material from Taxonomy with the sample that can be seen in their smartphone layer. The second feature is “Review” feature, this feature used for users that want to sharpen their knowledge until how far their knowledge about Taxonomy.

The third feature is 3D Object Augmented Reality feature, with this feature, users are being made easier to know the mentioned animal’s shape, and the sound that the mentioned animal’s produced.

Picture 4.1 Use Case Taxondroid Application

After doing the installation process, then users can open “Taxondroid” application which is contained in smartphone menu with Taxondroid icon.

Picture 4.2 Splash Screen and Home Screen

In Picture 4.2 Main Menu has Material Menu, Material Menu is a menu to learn about Taxonomy by using Augmented Reality. It has a few feature in this material menu, such as Augmented Reality and sound feature.

In material menu, it contains classification menu that is used for grouping animals based on the mentioned animal’s class, that is Mammals, Aves, Reptile, Pisces, and Amphibians. Not to mentioned, in classification menu contains material for classification.

Picture 4.3 Classification Material Menu Screen

In Picture 4.3 and 4.4 it contains Mammals menu that contain sets of homoioterm animals, lungs breathing, gives birth, have mammary gland and have hairs.

Picture 4.4 Classification Material Menu Screen

After choosing classification material, users will be taken to a few animal’s class menu then being displayed again a few animal selections to learn about the mentioned animal’s Taxonomy. After choosing animal in animal class menu, then Augmented Reality feature will appear as in Picture 4.6. In Augmented Reality display contains Sound feature that can be turn off or on by pushing sound button, then the system will respond by hiding the chosen animal sound.

Evaluation menu is a menu to measure how far the user’s knowledge about Taxonomy that has or hasn’t learned in “Taxondroid” application. In this menu contains questions and score that the users get when it is already answered in evaluation menu. Users could see their score at the top right corner of their display, is shown as below.

Picture 4.5 Evaluation Menu Screen

Download marker menu can be found in Help menu, it is for do Marker Book download from Taxondroid application, that is used to be the target from 3D Object Augmented Reality.

Picture 4.6 Augmented Reality and Help Menu Screen

 V. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

The evaluation that has to be done for users’ needs is doing usability to users. This test is done by surveys face to face. Writers gave the application then continued by requesting responders to evaluate the application. After trying the application, writers requesting responders to write down usability testing questionnaire.

The population in this research is all 40 students who use Taxondroid application. From that population, multiple samples were taken to be respondents. The sampling technique is using simple random sampling method so that all members of the population have the same opportunity to be sampled. By using simple random sampling method, the entitled to be respondent is all active students. Determination of sample size was done by using Slovin formula (1).

………………………….(1)

Where: n = sample, N = population, e = the error rate is 5%

With population = 40 and the fault tolerance limit of 5%, the required number of samples is 36 students.

We take the 36 samples respondent that have been written down usability testing questionnaire completely.

The percentage of respondents’ answers in the form of a single table through frequency and percentage distribution by using the formula (2) :

P = f/N x 100%      ……………………………………….(2)

Where: P = percentage distribution, f = frequency, N = number of samples = 36

The result of usability testing questionnaire is shown as below.

TABLE I. USABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE RESULT

No. Indicator Category Freq. Percent
1 Are the learning features of the material easy to use and understand? Very Easy 18 50%
Easy 16 44%
Neutral 2 6%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
2 Is the animal shape recognition feature using Augmented Reality technology easy to understand and use? Very Easy 11 31%
Easy 23 64%
Neutral 2 5%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
3 Is the Animal Sound feature in the Augmented Reality feature easy to use and understand? Very Easy 11 31%
Easy 18 50%
Neutral 7 19%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
4 Is the Review feature in the application easy to use and understand? Very Easy 16 44%
Easy 15 42%
Neutral 6 14%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
5 Is the Help feature in the application easy to use and understand? Very Easy 12 33%
Easy 20 56%
Neutral 4 11%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
6 Whether the Download Marker feature on the Help menu is easy
used?
Very Easy 7 20%
Easy 25 69%
Neutral 4 11%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
7 Is the Taksondroid application as a whole easy to use? Very Easy 17 47%
Easy 17 47%
Neutral 2 6%
Hard 0 0%
Very Hard 0 0%
8 How long does it take to master Navigation
Taksondroid application?
Very fast 12 33%
Fast 16 45%
Neutral 7 19%
Quite Long 1 3%
Very Long 0 0%
9 How does the Taksondroid application UI look? Very interesting 10 28%
Interesting 15 42%
Neutral 11 30%
Slight Interest 0 0%
Uninteresting 0 0%
10 Can the Taksondroid application help you in studying the Animal Taxonomy? Very Helpful 14 39%
Helps 12 33%
Neutral 10 27%
Not Help 0 0%
Very Not Helpful 0 0%

 

Evaluation of Usability is used with analysis from questionnaire table in above. For the purposes of quantitative analysis of the research, respondents will be given five alternative answers using the Likert measurement scale in the score 1 for very easy or uninteresting or very long or very not helpful to 5 for very hard or very interesting or very fast or very helpful.

The results of evaluation of Usability Testing of “Taxondroid” application is shown as below.

  1. Variable Studying Time on question no. 9

Studying time in this application doesn’t need much time because of user interface that is available in “Taxondroid” application that are made as simple as possible.

  1. Variable Performance Speed on question no. 8

Performance speed in “Taxondroid” application works well on the appropriate device that is recommended.

  1. Rate of Error by users on question no. 6 & 7

Overall the error rate in users’ application rarely happens when it is used by users.

  1. User’s memory on question no. 1 to 5

“Taxondroid” application is easy to use, so it is not burdened the users’ memory. Because the design of user interface from “Taxondroid” application is made with full of consistency so the users are easier to use it.

  1. Subjective Satisfaction on question no. 10

Generally, users are satisfied with “Taxondroid” application because there are Augmented Reality and animal sound feature.

Each question in a group can only be worth 1-5. The respondent will fill in a value of 1 if he ‘strongly disagrees’ with the intention of the question submitted and will fill in the value of 5 if he ‘strongly agrees’ with the intent of the question.

For validity and reliability test on the data in questionnaire, we calculate the average value of the Total Correlation item from each question in the criteria group using the Cronbach correlation. if the average value r is more then 0.432 then the questions in the criteria group is considered “valid”. The value of r = 0.432 is obtained from table r with the free degree n-2 where n is the number of respondent so the value used in this case is table r with free degrees 22. The results can be seen in Table II.

 

TABLE II. CRONBACH VALIDITY TESTING

Variable Average Total Correlation Result
Studying Time 0.665 Valid
Performance Speed 0.570 Valid
Error Rate 0.726 Valid
Memorability 0.592 Valid
Satisfaction 0.657 Valid

 

Furthermore, with Cronbach’s statistical test, it was also conducted to see the reliability of the data. The result is as in table III.

TABLE III. STATISTICS CRONBACH RELIABILITY

Cronbach’s Alpha Number of items
 0.838 36

 

From Table III above it can be seen that the value of Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.838. An instrument is said to be reliable for measuring variables if it has an alpha value greater than 0.70. With an alpha value = 0.838, the instrument question items used to measure the reliability of the Taxondroid application can be said to be reliable.

For Users’ Evaluation Experience will be done with analysis of testimony results of Taxondroid application that given six tasks to users. Every task is given 3 scores: successful, quite successful, and not successful. The task question is shown as below:

Task 1: Accessing the material, the purpose of this task is the user could learn the Taxonomy starts from classification, per class material, animal, and the uniqueness of the animal.

Task 2: Introduction of animal shapes, the purpose of this task is to recognize users in physic’s shape from the animal by 3D object using Augmented Reality, so that the users know about how the mentioned animal’s shape.

Task 3: Audio access, the purpose of this task is to tell the users about the types of animal’s sound from each animal that is contained in Taxondroid application.

Task 4: Do review, the purpose of this task is to evaluate the results from task 1, 2, and 3 learning so that is known how far the users learn about animals’ Taxonomy.

Task 5: Accessing Help menu, the purpose of this task is to direct the users when did not know what to do in their first time in Taxondroid application.

Task 6: Accessing Download Marker, the purpose of this task is to tell the users how to download marker that is contained in Help menu in the application, and how to use it.

From the results of responders’ answer, the sum of achievement calculation doing the task is obtained as ahown in table IV.

TABLE IV. TOTAL CALCULATION OF TASK RESULT

Assignment Frequency
Successful 73
Quite Successful 118
Not Successful 25
Total 216

 

From the UX success level category table (Handiwidjojo, 2016) shown in table V.

TABLE V. CATEGORY OF UX SUCCESS RATE

Success Rate (SR) Category
 SR <  72% Less User Friendly
SR =  72 % Pretty User Friendly
SR >  72% Very User Friendly

 

The following formula is the percentage of user experience success rate (SR) for evaluating the user experience success rate (3) :

SR = (frequencies / total sample) * 100% …………(3)

SR = ((73 + 118) / 216) * 100% = 88%

From the evaluation results above, calculation from success rate UX “Taxondroid” application is 88%. From category table that shown above, it can be concluded that features in “Taxondroid” application is included into User Friendly category.

 VI.  Conclusion

From this research result and research evaluation, it can be concluded that this application could help students to learn about Biology subject especially animals’ Taxonomy learning. By using Augmented Reality technology, students could add their experience by looking 3D animal object in studying animals’ Taxonomy. Based on Usability Testing evaluation to students, this Multimedia Application for Animal Taxonomy Learning can be useful and easy to learn also easy to use. User Interface and User Experience from this application could draw students’ attention to learn about animals’ Taxonomy.

From the research result that has been done, it has a few aspects that had to be added to develop in the future, as this “Taxondroid” application can be improved in iOS platform, adding Augmented Reality feature so that animals can be more interactive and adding material about plants’ Taxonomy.

References

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[8] Chow, A. S., Smith, K. M., & Sun, K. (2012). Youth as Design Partners: Age-Appropriate Websites for Middle and High School Students. Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 89– 103.

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[13] Tarng, W., & Ou, K. L. (2012, March). A study of campus butterfly ecology learning system based on augmented reality and mobile learning. In 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (pp. 62-66). IEEE

[14] Xiao, C., & Lifeng, Z. (2014, June). Implementation of mobile augmented reality based on Vuforia and Rawajali. In 2014 IEEE 5th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (pp. 912-915). IEEE.

[15] Fitton, D., & Bell, B. (2014, September). Working with teenagers within HCI research: understanding teen-computer interaction. In Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014-Sand, Sea and Sky-Holiday HCI (pp. 201-206). BCS.

 

Bapak Hendra, S.Kom., M.T. adalah pendiri sekaligus penulis artikel dalam website ini. Saat ini Pak Hendra bekerja sebagai developer advisor di PT. Visionet Data Internasional. Beliau juga mengajar di School of Computer Science BiNus University Jakarta.

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